Manganese is a component of several enzymes that are necessary for the normal functioning of almost all systems in the body. A lot of manganese is found in unrefined grain, bran, coarse flour, leafy green vegetables, cranberries, peppers, meat, but especially in tea and cocoa. The daily requirement for manganese is 2-9 mg.
At first, with a slight deficiency, the only symptom of manganese deficiency is a passing rash. Then pain spreading along the nerves (neuralgia), joint pain, fever, enlargement of lymph nodes and liver are added. Manganese deficiency can lead to the development of anemia, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, cataracts, dermatitis, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, thyroid gland pathology and epilepsy. With manganese deficiency in the body of a pregnant woman, the risk of fetal abnormalities, including defects in the development of the neural tube, increases.
When the soil and plants contain a low level of manganese, it is found in small quantities, and processing and fine grinding of grain reduces the manganese content to almost zero. If the diet for several weeks contains an insufficient amount of manganese, the body successfully preserves this mineral by reducing its excretion. However, with ongoing manganese deficiency, numerous nonspecific symptoms develop.
Hydralazine (a blood pressure-lowering medication) can cause manganese deficiency. The absorption of manganese is reduced by food additives containing calcium and iron.
Manganese deficiency can be diagnosed by micronutrient analysis of hair. In addition, a deficiency of manganese reduces its content in the blood plasma below 0.3-1.0 mcg / l and in the urine below 0.1-1.5 mcg / l.
In the case of manganese deficiency, a diet rich in manganese-containing products and food additives containing manganese is prescribed. The absorption of manganese can be increased with zinc and vitamin C supplements.